War letters shed light on Spanish flu that has parallels with COVID-19
By Hina Alam, The Globe
and Mail, 07 NOV 2020
Stirred by the onset of
COVID-19, Jacqueline Carmichael combed through faded letters from the First
World War for mentions of the Spanish flu, finding haunting similarities to
today as lives were changed then by another pandemic.
For the author, the exchanges, preserved in paper between
soldiers and their families toward the end of the war as the Spanish flu loomed
over celebrations, are particularly poignant.
In her new book, Heard Amid the Guns: True Stories from the
Western Front, 1914-1918, she dedicated a chapter to the parallels between
the two pandemics.
After being “curled up in a ball from being depressed” and binge
watching Friends on Netflix, she said she began reworking her book
after it had already been submitted.
The importance of the Spanish flu didn’t register with her until
the COVID-19 pandemic, said Ms. Carmichael, who lives in Port Alberni, B.C.
"We hear pandemic and we’re like ‘Oh, I think I saw
something about that on Downton Abbey,’ " she said in a recent interview.
“But the fact is that 100 years ago, our forebears were dealing
with this very thing.”
That’s when she realized that among the many afflictions her
grandfather, George “Black Jack” Vowel, suffered during the war was what he
called the grippe, another name for the flu.
“I started going back through the letters specifically looking
for references to flu and the grippe and the illnesses, and by gum, it was all
there in black and white. I just had to look at it differently.”
Her grandfather had the flu while travelling on a troop ship,
the HMS Monas Queen, from France to England. He described the experience in a
letter dated March 24, 1919.
“We pulled out of the harbour
loaded to the scuppers with soldiers. The seas were running mountain high and
a man’s size gale blowing,” reads the letter on yellow, crumbling paper.
“I had a very bad dose of the grippe and managed to get on the
second deck wedged between two steam pipes and never moved all the fourteen
hours on board. Fully three quarters of the men were seasick.”
Tim Cook, a historian at the Canadian War Museum, said it is
difficult to find the exact number of soldiers who died from the flu. A
medical history book puts it at 776 but that number is disputed, and the actual
death toll is considered to be much higher, he added.
The disease made its way across the country as the returning men
travelled by train, he said.
“It really worked its way into every city, every town, almost
every village in the country.”
Dr. Cook sees some obvious parallels between the Spanish flu and
COVID-19, such as closing schools, theatres and churches, but also a stronger
discussion about public health.
One of the key legacies of the disease was the creation of the
Department of Health in 1919 in response to the Spanish flu, he said.
Professor Stephen Davies of Vancouver Island University, a
historian who is also director of the Canadian Letters and Images Project, said
references to the Spanish flu are from letters written in camps in England or
France as soldiers ask about the disease in Canada.
“It’s just mostly single lines scattered through the letters but
there is nothing substantive focusing on the flu,” he said in an e-mail. “They
are certainly well aware of it though.”
One letter from William Stares dated July 21, 1918, described
symptoms of the flu.
“Severe headache, partial loss of legs, aches and pains all
over, and feverish,” it says. “For one week I just gazed at the ceiling,
counting the flies, working out imaginary patterns on the paintwork, going
through some of the battles again, (in my mind) killing Germans by the
Ms. Carmichael said the letters show that most of the spread
came after Armistice Day because people couldn’t “contain themselves”
celebrating the end of the war with parties and parades.
“Armistice was a superspreader event, because these people were
so crowded and then, of course, once they started going home, they were crowded
into troop ships, which exposed them further,” she said.
Soldier Robert Shortreed of Guelph, Ont., captured the mood in
Paris in a letter written the day after the armistice to his mother describing
streets “crazy with joy” and “impassable for people.”
“Today is going to be almost as bad. Flags are to be seen
everywhere. The French way of showing their joy is to kiss everyone and few
people escaped it yesterday. Of course, the soldiers came in for their share.”
Reading the letters that mention the Spanish flu, Ms. Carmichael
said she feels “another kind of empathy” with soldiers and their families
because they dealt with something that the world is going through now.
“They could dodge the shells, and they could run between the
bullets and somehow make it through, and still be taken down by a virus,” she
“It was probably one of the biggest tragedies of the war.”