Blind Spots in the German Army's Interwar Modernization from: The German Army after
the Great War by Geoffrey P. Megargee, PhD, in Victory or Defeat: Armies in the Aftermath of Conflict,
Big Sky Publishing, Warriewood NSW, Australia, 2010, 233 pp
"...one should remember that the First World War oﬀered some operational lessons that escaped the
Germans completely. True, they did gradually develop a way to return operational maneuver to the
battleﬁeld, but there is more to the operational level of war than maneuver. Perhaps most important,
the Germans failed to develop any deep understanding of the role of logistics, either in terms of their
own capabilities or as a consideration in striking at the enemy.
They never could escape a mind-set that put the scheme of maneuver before all else. They only
thought about logistics—or 'supply,' the term they actually used, and a much more limited idea—
after they developed the maneuver plan.
And so, for example, they failed to learn any lessons from their own oﬀensives of spring 1918,
in which they advanced into positions that were logistically untenable, while simultaneously
missing the operational and strategic importance of the enemy’s rail hubs, whose loss or
interdiction might have forced the British to abandon their position in northern France and
perhaps even driven the Allies to the negotiating table.
One searches in vain, however, in the postwar studies, in F.u.G., or in any of the following doctrinal
manuals, for any discussion of logistics on this level. Herein lay the seeds for some of Germany’s
greatest failures in the next war, when the capabilities of the logistical system did not always
match the speed and scope of German advances.
The strategic sphere was more problematic still. In fact, one can argue that the Germans simply
did not understand strategy; their conduct of the Great War, and the lessons they drew from it,
certainly point to that conclusion.
The 'stab-in-the-back' myth, the concept of 'total war,' and the focus on operational and tactical issues—
all those explanations miss the strategic blunders that really lost the Great War for Germany.
For example, the Reichswehr’s leaders never questioned the wisdom of invading Belgium in 1914.
In their minds, there were sound operational reasons for doing so; the fact that the invasion brought
Britain into the war was unimportant to them, as it had been to the leaders of 1914. Likewise, the
decision to launch unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 drew no signiﬁcant attention, even though
it led to war with the United States.
The Germans’ fundamental problem was that they equated strategy with what one might call
'grand operations.' That is, when they wrote or spoke about strategy, their focus lay entirely
on winning battles and campaigns. They figured that military solutions were the only solutions,
and if they won enough battles, the war would take care of itself.
They failed to understand how to balance political ends with economic and military means on the
strategic level, and thus did not perceive that, no matter how superior their tactics and operational
doctrine might be, there were some ﬁghts they just could not win, and thus should not start.
As Blomberg once put it, 'The more enemies, the more honour!'.
Here again, this was a weakness that would come back to haunt the Germans in their next ﬁght."
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